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بارها پیش آمده که با دیدن رانندگی یک نفر در خیابان یا جاده، از خود پرسیده باشید که چگونه به چنین فردی گواهینامه رانندگی داده شده و یا چگونه آموزش رانندگی دیده است. در آمار پلیس نیز از عوامل انسانی و خطاهای راننده به عنوان یکی از اصلی ترین دلایل تصادفات نام برده می شود. برخلاف روشهای سریع و گزیده آموزش رانندگی در ایران، در بسیاری از کشورهای پیشرفته، آموزش رانندگی را نقطه آغاز پیشگیری از حوادث رانندگی نیز می دانند. بد نیست نگاهی به روش آموزش رانندگی و مراحل کسب گواهینامه در سوئد داشته باشیم و آن را با روش متداول آموزشی کشورمان مقایسه کنیم.

آموزش رانندگی در پیست برفی

در ابتدا شما باید در محلی که شبیه به پیست مسابقات اتومبیل رانی است حاضر شوید و پس از یک توضیح 10 دقیقه‌ای از طرف تیم پلیس رانندگی وارد پیست می شوید. سپس در گروه هایی 5 نفره (که البته هر فرد یک اتومبیل) تقسیم شده و از طریق یک دستگاه رادیو بی‌سیم با کنترل کننده گروه در ارتباط هستید. مثلاً برای شروع، در یک پیست که زمین آن با روغن و آب آغشته است و بسیار لغزنده می باشد، به شما می آموزند که در شرایط سخت برفی و جاده های لغزنده چه حوادثی در کمین شماست و چگونه کنترل خودرو در چنین شرایطی را باید به بهترین نحو انجام داد. برای مثال، ترمز ناگهانی روی زمین سر و احتساب میزان سر خوردن اتومبیل و مراحل مختلف دیگر. پس از اتمام کار و پس از یک سخنرانی حدوداً 10 دقیقه‌ای آموزشی نتیجه توسط گروه پلیس اعلام می شود که با توجه به اینکه این یک پروسه‌ای آموزشی است 99 درصد قبولی دارد.

آموزش رانندگی در پیست برفی

در مرحله بعد کلاسی ویژه تشکیل می شود برای آگاهی از تبعات مصرف مشربت الکلی پشت فرمان و اتفاقاتی که ممکن است برای خود شما و سایر افراد بی افتد. سپس وارد مرحله‌ای تئوری یا آئین نامه می شوید. سوال ها به صورت 4 جوابی بوده و از 65 امتیاز برای قبولی، شما حداقل باید به 52 مورد صحیح پاسخ دهید. نکته قابل ذکر این است که در صورت قبول نشدن هم شما می توانید در مرحله بعد که رانندگی می باشد شرکت کرده و حداکثر تا 1 ماه اجازه دارید که دوباره امتحان کتبی بدهید. قبل از مرحله رانندگی باید ذکر کنم که در سوئد شما 2 سال قبل از سن قانونی برای رانندگی می توانید با حضور شخص دومی که دوره تعلیم ساده رانندگی را گذرانده باشد و از مدت گواهی نامه خودش هم تاریخ مشخصی گذشته باشد، فقط با یک نوشته کوچک در پشت خودرو رانندگی نمائید! در ابتدای مرحله عملی چیزی که برای من خیلی جالب بود اینکه شما به دفعات اجازه دارید که پس از خاموش شدن خودرو دوباره استارت زده و حرکت نمائید بدون هیچ استرسی و چیزهایی که به آن ها اهمیت می دهند در ابتدا رانندگی مناسب برای حفظ محیط زیست است به این معنی که شما از دنده یک و دو فقط برای حرکت استفاده می کنید نه پر کردن دور موتور تا 6000 ! و با این مدل رانندگی هم میزان مصرف پائین می آید هم محیط زیست در امان می ماند.

از نکات قابل ذکر دیگر در یک رانندگی 30 تا 40 دقیقه‌ای در شهر و اتوبان است که شامل سرعت مجاز، حق تقدم و استفاده درست از چراغ راهنما می باشد یعنی اینکه شما بدانید صرفاً با زدن راهنما در آن واحد نمی توانید دور بزنید یا لاین عوض کنید. داشتن جلسات مشخص هم با جاهایی مانند آموزشگاه رانندگی اجباری نیست.

پس از اتمام مراحل و اخذ گواهینامه نداشتن تخلف جدی تا 2 سال مهم می باشد. در غیر این صورت گواهینامه ابطال و نیاز به آموزش مجدد است. . لازم به ذکر است که کل این مراحل با هزینه‌ای حدود 4000 کرون سوئد انجام میشود که این رقم در صورت قبولی در مرحله اول از شما گرفته می شود.

گواهینامه های رانندگی موتور سیکلت در سوئد با علامت A و برای سن 15 سال شامل راندن موتورهای گازی و تا سرعت 45 کیلومتر بر ساعت، 16 سال با اجازه راندن موتورهای 125cc و در محدوده سن 18 تا 20 سال بااجازه راندن وسایل با قدرت کمتر از 25 کیلو وات و سن 20 سال و بالاتر برای راندن هر نوع موتور سیکلت مشخص می شوند.
برای گواهینامه رانندگی با خودرو از نشانهای B برای سواری ها و خودروهای سبک، C برای ماشینهای سنگین تا 3.5 تن و  D برای خودروها و کامیونهای سنگین استفاده می شود. برای رانندگی آفرود نیز نیاز به مجوز جداگانه ای می باشد.

نویسنده مهمان: مهدى عبدالملکى


:: مرتبط با: پدال ,
 



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